No elemental sulfur was found in samples of lake sediments. Geologists thought it was likely that pyroclastic flows had moved through the area. Unusual sunrises and sunsets have been reported from E Texas since 24 April. Information Contacts: King Freeland, Distrito Reynosa 157, Fracc. During the next 5 hours, ash drifted over N Guatemala and Belize. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. University of Wyoming balloon flights from Laredo, Texas 17-19 May passed through two primary layers, at 15-20 km and 24-27 km altitude. Activity during 28-29 March 1982. Geotherm. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. There is data available for 1 emission periods. Tilling R I, Rubin M, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Duffield W A, Rose W I, 1984. A small explosion during the early afternoon of 2 April ejected a mushroom-shaped cloud that rose to ~ 3.5 km altitude in 30 minutes. Most of the casualties on the N flank were reportedly caused by fires started by incandescent airfall tephra. Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. Between the first and second visits, on 19 April and 3 May, new crater-floor rockfall deposits had originated from the SE crater wall. Solfataras and hot springs were present in the crater and on the flanks. At its distal end, the deposit was about 100 m wide and 3 m thick and contained pumice blocks 1 m in diameter. The origin of El Chichón volcano is poorly understood, and we attempt in this study to demonstrate that the Tehuantepec Ridge (TR), a major tectonic discontinuity on the Cocos plate, plays a key role in determining the location of the volcano by enhancing the slab dehydration budget beneath it. The largest lake, in the valley of the Río Magdalena at the SW foot of the volcano, grew about 1 m deeper each day until 26 April, then more slowly, eventually reaching 5 km in length and several million m3 in volume. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email. Rose, W., Bornhorst, T., Halsor, S., Capaul, W., Plumley, P., de la Cruz-Reyna, S., Mena, M., and Mota, R., 1984, Volcán el Chichón, México: pre-1982 S-rich eruptive activity: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 23, p. 147-167. 116 Geofis. Taran noted that three groups of hot springs exist on the slopes of the volcano: Agua Caliente, S of the volcano with a maximum temperature of 74°C; Agua Salada, at the base of the dome, SSW from the crater, with a maximum temperature of 55°C; and Agua Tibia, NW of the crater with an estimated maximum temperature of ~ 51°C. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated dome-growth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Armienta and S. de la Cruz-Reyna at the Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM. Unusual twilight colors were observed through mid-May from Flagstaff, Arizona, and extinction coefficients measured there were about three times the normal value [Livingston and Lockwood, 1983]. Several other curviplanar slump fractures encompass apparent areas of several hundred square meters on the crater wall. Through mid-May, wind data from Hilo, Hawaii showed a strong (up to 240 km/h), steady W to E flow between 10 and 20-22 km altitude, and a steady, 50-60 km/h E to W flow above 25-26 km. However, their direction and speed of drift can be measured on a series of satellite images and then compared with known wind directions and speeds at various heights (in this case from the Veracruz radiosondes) to estimate altitudes. April 1982 NOAA 7 satellite data between 120°E and 122.5°W showed an apparent increase in albedo (visible band) and an apparent decrease in outgoing longwave radiation (thermal infrared band) between 15°N and 35°N, peaking at 23°-26°N, when compared with the zonal average from the previous 4 years. Jimenez Z, Espindola V H, Espindola J M, 1999. The periods of high discharge at the springs correspond to periods when the lake grows. This volcano is classified by UNESCO as one of the ten most dangerous volcanos in the world. A preliminary examination of the material collected showed that it was a well-sorted assemblage of 5-10 µm plagioclase crystals and silicic glass, with a small amount of a mafic mineral (probably an amphibole) and traces of a Ca and S-rich mineral (probably a Ca sulfate). Careful inspection of visible satellite imagery from the NOAA 6 and 7 polar orbiters, the GOES East and West (U.S.), GMS (Japan), and Meteosat (Europe) geostationary weather satellites has permitted the tracking of the densest portion of the 4 April stratospheric cloud as it circled the globe from E to W. The cloud reached Hawaii by 9 April, Japan by 18 April, the Red Sea by 21 April, and had crossed the Atlantic Ocean by 26 April, dipping S to about 5°N at its W edge. J. Volcanol. Information Contacts: S. De la Cruz-Reyna, Z. Jiménez, J.M. Top Answer. Both layers were normally-graded but the 3 April layer, where present, consisted only of fine ash. Krueger, A.J., 1983, Sighting of the El Chichón sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer: Science, v. 220, p. 1377-1379. Lidar measurements and reports from England indicated that gradual northward dispersal was continuing. It lies some 70 km to the NNW of Tuxtla Gutierrez, the capital of the State of Chiapas, and 77 km to the SSW of Villahermosa, capital of the neighboring State of Tabasco. The following 110 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). By 5 April, the low-altitude plume from the second 3 April explosion had reached the S Texas coast and Brownsville reported visibility of only 6.5 km in haze. The eruption caused widespread devastation. . Evolution of the seismic activity from the 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. McGee J J, Tilling R I, Duffield W A, 1987. El Chichon, Mexico Location: 17.4N, 93.2W Elevation: 3,478 feet (1,060 m) This is a view of the floor of the El Chichon caldera. The salinity was greater when the lake had higher volume. Pure Applied Geophys, 123: 407-421. Hydrothermal activity inside the crater in April was compared to observations made in January 1997. No new activity; aerosol cloud continues dispersal. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. Petrologic characteristics of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptive products of El Chichon Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. El Chichon was made on a convergent boundary. Instruments at McMurdo, Antarctica, 11,865 km from El Chichón, recorded about 2 hours of infrasonic signals. Information Contacts: C. Lomnitz, S. de la Cruz-Reyna, F. Medina, UNAM, México; M. Krafft, Cernay; D. Haller, C. Kadin, M. Matson, NOAA/NESS; A. Krueger, NOAA/NWS; F. Mauk, Teledyne Geotech; C. Wilson, Univ. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports. Tremor, gas fluxes, inferences, and ongoing monitoring. Although heavy rains had compacted the ash, 3-4 m remained at the rim of the new crater. Lake level at El Chichón has continued to decline since 1992, dropping a total of 2 m (0.85 m from 1992 to 1993, and 1.15 m since 1993). Near the volcano, three separate layers were evident, ejected by explosions 28 March, 3 April (at 2000), and 4 April. Lava domes 1150 m / 3,773 ft, Southern Mexico, 17.36°N / -93.23°W Nearby recent earthquakes (within 30km radius): Earthquake list: past 7 days (only M>=-0.8) Jump to quake statistics | archive: show . It created a deep new crater, which is now filled with a lake of very acidic water. Armienta M A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, 1995. . Figure 6 illustrates the central crater as it looked in May 2004 from the SE side of the volcano looking towards the WSW. Concern arose as to whether the event was triggered by El Chichón volcano. Since November 1985, the crater lake water temperature has been 28.6°C, in equilibrium with the environment. ), 1983, El Volcán Chichonal: Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 100 p. (9 papers). The eruption was also reported to have killed most of the birds near the volcano. The Mexican government has resettled people from heavily damaged villages onto land in other parts of the state of Chiapas. Residents of Jacksonville, Florida also began to see brilliant sunsets 4 June. The seismic stations were located in Coapilla, Chapultenango (11 km ESE of the summit), and Ostuacán (12 km NW). A four-station Instituto de Geofísica seismic net N of the volcano recorded 4-7 very small events per day in late May. Information Contacts: José Luís Macías V. and Michael Sheridan, State Univ of New York, Buffalo, NY; Jean-Christophe Komorowski and Claus Siebe, Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM; Robert Tilling, USGS. The acidity and temperature of the lake water were similar to 1992 and 1993. At College, Alaska (6,634 km from the volcano), about an hour of acoustic signals were received from both the 28 March and 4 April explosions. Pages Llergo, Villahermose, Tabasco, CP86125, México; Yuri Taran, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, Coyaocan 04510, México D.F., México (URL: http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/). Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM; J. Romeo León Vidal, Sismología del Sureste C. F. E., Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, México. Res., 97: 105-125. Although an acrid smell was noted at active hydrothermal areas, H2S concentrations must have decreased below the 2-6 ppm that forced geologists to take special precautions in 1983 and to leave the crater in 1984. Information Contacts: Yuri Taran, Jose Luis Macias, Juan Manuel Espindola, and Nicholas Varley, Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, México D.F., México. According to bathymetric data obtained during the April visit, the average depth of the lake is only 1.5 m. On the lake bottom several funnel-shaped areas about 5-6 m below the surface discharged bubbling gases. El Chichón is the youngest of the Quaternary volcanoes forming the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. Macias J L, Espindola J M, Taran Y, Sheridan M F, Garcia A, 1997. Vigorous feeding of the plume continued for several hours but had clearly ended by 0600. Cocoa, coffee, and banana crops were destroyed, and the cattlemen's association requested that animals from a wide area be transported for butchering because ashfall had made grazing impossible. IAVCEI Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Plenary Assembly, Excursion no. The high water mark of the lake coincided with the NASA flight in early November when it was 60 cm higher than in January. They had no reason to rush because El Chichón, the volcano in the region, had been dormant for 6 centuries. The emissions were H2S-rich, apparently partly because the lake (temperature 52°C, pH 0.56) and the ground water were selectively extracting SO2. This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. An abundant, rusty colored precipitate (Fe oxides) was sampled for analysis. ; J. Rosen, Univ. Tephra samples were collected from about 100 sites around El Chichón in mid-April. The eruptions created a new 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep crater that now contains an acidic crater lake. Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM. These springs alternate between periods of high- and low-water discharge feeding the lake. Data from a telemetering seismometer 16 km SSE of the volcano showed no change in seismicity through 4 May. Vapor was emitted from 6-8 vents distributed around the shore and churning of the lake water indicated that gases were also emerging from sources beneath its surface. The eruption of El Chichón was North America's deadliest volcano disaster of the century. Analysis of a water sample taken at site 1 indicated that the lake has remained chemically stable since 1992 except for minor boron variations. Asked by Wiki User. The pyroclastic flow that traveled through Francisco León left only a thin deposit, but of the structures in the village, only one wall of the church, parallel to the direction of the pyroclastic flow's movement, remained standing. However, with NASA's SAGE satellite no longer functional, determination of the extent of the cloud at any given time is very difficult. Capaccioni, B., Taran, Y., Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., Mangani, G., and Macias, J.L., 2004, Source conditions and degradation processes of light hydrocarbons in volcanic gases: an example from El Chichón volcano (Chiapas State, Mexico), Chemical Geology, v. 206, nop. Saline, near-neutral pH water pours from a boiling geyser-like spring on the lake's N coast. Residents of the municipio of Francisco León, destroyed by a pyroclastic flow 4 April, estimate that about 400 people in the area were killed by the eruption, and the Catholic diocese of Tuxtla Gutiérrez has a list of more than 1,000 persons believed to have died. Late 26 May, the pyroclastic dam holding back this water failed. Antipodal acoustic-gravity wave signals from the first 3 April and 4 April explosions were detected at Tennant Creek, Australia (19.52°S, 134.25°E). Among the deaths were one geologist and 32 soldiers sent to the village of Francisco León, ~ 6 km SW of the summit, after the 28-29 March explosion. This is a view of the El Chichon caldera, formed during the very explosive eruptions of late March and early April of 1982. Seismic activity and landsliding were at a very low level. Today marks the 30th anniversary of Mexico's eruption of El Chichón, a seemingly dormant volcano that killed at least 1,900 people living nearby. Hazards. The temperature at site 2 was 66.6°C and its pH was 1.7. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146. To try to reduce local alarm, J.L. The recession correlated with a deepening of color in the lake and may in part have been due to the end of the rainy season.". Volcanic history of El Chichon Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity. Information Contacts: W. Fuller, NASA; M. Hirono, Kyushu Univ., Japan; H. Lamb, Univ. Determinations from satellite and radiosonde data of initial cloud top altitudes (rows with temperature and tropopause data) and later downwind drift of ejecta (rows with drift data) from the four largest explosions of El Chichón, March-April 1982. Many villagers who had fled the heavy tephra falls from the initial explosions 28-29 March, however, returned a few days later. Several layers were detected, with strongest backscattering at an altitude of 25.7 km. Geochemistry of the volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. A somewhat larger explosion that was first visible at 1500 produced a cloud that rose into the mid-troposphere and moved about 350 km N. Activity was declining by 1900. Diffusion into higher latitudes appeared to be very limited. Duffield W A, Tilling R I, Canul R, 1984. No significant N-S component had developed above 10 km since the El Chichón eruption. El Chichón is part of a geologic zone known as the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. When this spring sometimes disappears, the lake becomes smaller until an equilibrium develops between precipitation, evaporation, and seepage through the lake bottom. The latest rockfall deposit contained blocks up to 3 m in diameter. Crater Lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichon volcano, Mexico. Geologists visited the volcano on 30 September. The ratio of NO (measured by a chemoluminescent technique) to total sulfur gases (analyzed by flame photometry) was an order of magnitude higher in the El Chichón plume than at Arenal, Poás, Colima, and Mt. J. Volcanol. A stronger explosion, possibly larger than the initial event on 28 March, first appeared on the NOAA geostationary weather satellite image returned at 0530 on 4 April and was reported by ground observers to have started at 0522. Silicates and halite crystals of several µm in size were found. Variations observed in the size of the fumarole plumes were thought to be caused by changes in temperature and humidity. In Pichucalco (~ 20 km NE of the summit) incandescent tephra could be seen rising from the volcano and the ash cloud darkened the sky during the morning as though it were night. The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho? A few flights into small S Texas airports were cancelled, but winds initially forced most of this material into the Gulf of México. Res., 23: 147-168. The two crater lakes observed in September had combined into a single bright yellow-green lake that covered more than 80% of the crater floor. (eds. Satellite images returned at 0728 on 9 April and 0238 on 10 April both showed small diffuse plumes, drifitng NNE and SSE respectively. However, sampling in December 1999 revealed that this is no longer the case. About. The crater lake has variable shape and size, depending on the flow rate of a boiling spring in the crater that feeds the lake. As of early November, no new eruptive activity has been reported from El Chichón since the small ash ejection of 11 September described last month. Temperature and acidity of the crater lake at El Chichón, measured at sites on the SE and N shores. This activity is probably a result of the increased rainfall that reached 3,829 mm in the area January-October, compared to 3,219 mm measured during the same period last year. Casadevall T J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Rose W I, Bagley S, Finnegan D L, Zoller W H, 1984. On 8 August at 0922, while two of the geologists (J.L.M. 27, p. 156-170. High concentrations of H2S forced the geologists to leave after 40 minutes. Answer. After several weeks of local seismicity, explosions in late March and early April ejected a series of tephra columns, two of which penetrated well into the stratosphere. No new explosions; dense stratospheric cloud over N hemisphere. Bulk of stratospheric cloud remains at low N latitudes. Pinatubo erupted again in late August 1992, killing more than 72 people. Minor microseismic activity was continuing in early July. No significant seismic activity has been recorded at El Chichón in recent months although some tectonic seismicity has occurred SE of the volcano. Volcanoes proposed as the source include Rabaul (Papua New Guinea; Stothers and Rampino, 1983), El Chichón (Mexico; Gill, 2000; Nooren et al., 2009), and Ilopango (El Salvador; Oppenheimer, 2011), although Rabaul has recently been discarded (McKee et al., 2015). The current activity may continue and could include dome emplacement.". A good correlation appeared between gas flux and ground temperature. Fatal flood after natural pyroclastic dam fails; stratospheric cloud effects; eruption summary, The following summary was prepared by L. Silva, J.J. Cochemé, R. Canul, W. Duffield, and R. Tilling. El Chichón, Mexico: Home; History ; Location ; Facts ; El Chichon is located in Chiapas in Southern Mexico. During the seismic recording, the volcano was visited to obtain samples. "The Coapilla noises and vibrations were found to be produced by the town's water-piping net. 25 de Julio ##965, Col. Villas San Sebastián, C.P. Res., 136: 247-268. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. Geologists suggested that the halite sampled by NASA and anhydrite found in tephra near the volcano are probably the result of contamination by evaporites, which were found in bedrock penetrated by two Petroleos Mexicanos drillholes near El Chichón. The gas emission fed a relatively diffuse, low-altitude plume that was visible within ~ 15 km of the volcano. Casadevall, T., de la Cruz-Reyna, S., Rose, W., Bagley, S., Finnegan, D., and Zoller, W., 1984, Crater lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichón Volcano, México: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 23, p. 169-191. No relationship between the earthquake and the volcano has been established. A team of scientists descended into the crater during the week of 16 October. El Chichón is at the most North-Western extent of the MCVA which is thought to be ~3 Ma years old (Manea and Manea, 2008; Simkin and Siebert, 1994). Stable with tremor; hot spring; significant crater-lake-volume variations. Fumarolic activity. Data from ground-based lidar distant from El Chichón indicated that the dense portion of the stratospheric cloud ejected 4 April was spreading slowly northward. Some evidence from wave form and polarity suggested both tectonic and internal explosion sources for these events. Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. At that time, an impulsive shake, accompanied by an explosion-like sound, was reported by the geologists at the crater rim. There was no evidence of any eruptive activity since at least 3 November, when excellent NASA photography was obtained. Res., 20: 117-132. Some of the streams on the outer flanks of the volcano had dried up for the first time in 15 years, and bubble activity was observed in the entire lake. Reappraisal of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: new data from proximal deposits. Spectacular sunsets were observed there in late May and early June and the haze blotted out stars during the night of 2-3 June. At lower latitudes, the strongest layers were centered above 25 km. Volcan El Chichon, Mexico: pre-1982 S-rich eruptive activity. Slight variations in lake water temperature and migration of thermal fields on the crater floor were noticed during an April 1998 visit. The river that now passes through El Volcán was formed after the pyroclastic flows changed the former drainage pattern. Location and background geology. A pumice flow deposit from the 4 April eruption extended ~ 5 km NE from the summit, terminating ~ 2 km from Nicapa. A helicopter flight over the volcano on 10 November allowed observation of hydrothermal activity that had increased from last year's levels. Since last visited in February 1993, several rockfalls had occurred from the inner crater wall. Information Contacts: Silvia Ramos, Monitoreo Volcanológioc y Sismológico, Chiapas, México, Río Cantela 221, Fracc Paraíso II, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, México; M. Aurora Armienta, Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, México 04510, D.F., México. However, as of early June, lidar stations in Italy and West Germany had not detected layers at these altitudes. Photos of crater lake and volcanic morphology. The pH values of 1.8 and 1.9 measured in 1983 and 1984, respectively, were similar to the April 1992 value. 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